WPF is a UI framework for building visually compelling Windows desktop apps on the .NET platform.
WinForms is a UI framework, with easy to use drag-and-drop designers, for building Windows desktop apps on the .NET platform.
UWP extends the .NET platform to enable development for any Windows 10 device—PC, tablet, phone, Xbox, HoloLens, Surface Hub, and Windows 10 IoT Core.
UWP provides a UI framework for writing responsive apps that support a number of screen sizes and interaction models, such as touch, mouse and keyboard, game controller, and pen. Extension SDKs offer specialized APIs for each device class, like the holographic capabilities of HoloLens.
Xamarin is a set of tools and libraries for building cross-platform apps on the .NET platform.
Build native apps for macOS, iOS, Android, and Windows on a shared .NET codebase.